sleep and heat resources

Photo by <a href="">Delaney Van</a> on <a href="">Unsplash</a>

Photo by Delaney Van on Unsplash



Pacheco, Danielle and Heather Wright. “Best Temperature for Sleep.” Sleep Foundation, Nov. 8, 2023. (Accessed Jan. 29, 2024.)


Altena, Ellemarije, et al. “How to deal with sleep problems during heatwaves: practical recommendations from the European Insomnia Network.” Journal of Sleep Research 32.2 (2023): e13704. Excellent overview article.

Baniassadi, Amir, et al. “Nighttime ambient temperature and sleep in community-dwelling older adults.” Science of The Total Environment 899 (2023): 165623. [PMID: 37474050] (Abstract only.)

Our findings demonstrated that sleep was most efficient and restful when nighttime ambient temperature ranged between 20 and 25 °C [68-77ºF], with a clinically relevant 5-10 % drop in sleep efficiency when the temperature increased from 25 °C to 30 °C [77-86ºF]. The associations were primarily nonlinear, and substantial between-subject variations were observed.

Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel, et al. “Perception of feeling cold in the bedroom and sleep quality.” Nagoya Journal of Medical Science 83.4 (2021): 705. [PMID: 34916715]

Harding, Edward C., Nicholas P. Franks, and William Wisden. “The temperature dependence of sleep.” Frontiers in neuroscience 13 (2019): 336. [PMID: 31105512]

We discuss the evidence that body cooling and sleep are more fundamentally connected and that thermoregulatory behaviours, prior to sleep, form warm microclimates that accelerate NREM directly through neuronal circuits. Paradoxically, this warmth might also induce vasodilation and body cooling. In this way, warmth seeking and nesting behaviour might enhance the circadian cycle by activating specific circuits that link NREM initiation to body cooling.

Nicol, Fergus. “Temperature and sleep.” Energy and Buildings 204 (2019): 109516.

Nicol, Fergus, et al. “The range and shape of thermal comfort and resilience.” Energy and Buildings 224 (2020): 110277.

Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue, and Koh Mizuno. “Effects of thermal environment on sleep and circadian rhythm.” Journal of physiological anthropology 31.1 (2012): 1-9. [PMID: 22738673]

Yan, Yan, et al. “Experimental study of the negative effects of raised bedroom temperature and reduced ventilation on the sleep quality of elderly subjects.” Indoor air 32.11 (2022): e13159. [PMID: 36437666] (Abstract only.)

The results showed that at the temperature of 30°C, the total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and duration of REM sleep of the elderly decreased by 26.3 min, 5.5%, and 5.3 min, respectively, and time awake increased by 27.0 min, in comparison with 27°C, indicating that the sleep quality of the elderly is very vulnerable to heat exposure. Even a small heat load led to an overactive sympathetic nervous system and increased wrist skin temperature, which reduced sleep quality. Improving the ventilation increased the duration of deep sleep and REM sleep by 10.3 min and 3.7 min, respectively. Higher pollutant concentrations affected the respiration and autonomous nervous systems to reduce sleep quality.

Zhang, Xiaojing, et al. “Associations of bedroom air temperature and CO2 concentration with subjective perceptions and sleep quality during transition seasons.” Indoor air 31.4 (2021): 1004-1017. [PMID: 33620120] (Abstract only.)

Zheng, Guozhong, Ke Li, and Yajing Wang. “The effects of high-temperature weather on human sleep quality and appetite.” International journal of environmental research and public health 16.2 (2019): 270. [PMID: 30669302]


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